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Science 101: Pain & Understanding Our Body’s Alarm System
by Preeti Chahal Aug 22, 2023
Have you ever wondered why a simple touch can send shivers down your spine, or why a sudden jolt of pain feels like a fire alarm going off in your body? Pain is a universal yet enigmatic force that holds profound implications for not only our bodies but our minds as well. Pain has effects on mental health, stress, sleep, and our diets! In the United States, pain is one of the most common reasons why individuals seek medical care. In fact, it has been reported that 42% of all emergency department visits are pain related.  In this journey through the realms of neuroscience, we shall unravel the fascinating science behind our body’s alarm system, delving into the depths of the complexities that make us wince, cringe, and sigh with relief. So, fasten your seatbelts, and get ready to explore the captivating world of pain!
What is Pain? An Overview of the Science
Let’s understand the science of pain using the “Security Guard” analogy. Imagine your body is like a big office building, and pain is the security guard whose job is to protect the building from potential threats. 
Remember, pain is essential for your survival. It acts as a protective mechanism to prevent further damage to your body. However, if you experience chronic pain or pain without any apparent cause, it’s like a “false alarm” that needs to be investigated further by medical professionals to ensure your well-being.
Chronic Pain And Mental Health: When The Alarm System Doesn’t Work
The definition of chronic pain is pain that persists beyond its normal healing time, lasting more than 3-6 months. This goes beyond what our body’s security guards can handle. It not only causes physical distress but also affects daily activities including work and social roles. 
Chronic pain and mental health disorders share common neurobiological mechanisms, including alterations in brain regions involved in pain processing, emotional regulation, and stress responses. These overlapping mechanisms contribute to chronic pain often occurring alongside mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, and substance abuse disorders. Furthermore, certain groups such as marginalized racial communities, women, older adults, individuals with cognitive impairments, and those with mental health disorders, or terminal illnesses may be at risk for inadequate pain management and thus worsening mental health conditions.  Pain can have a significant impact on a person’s emotional well-being. Likewise, mental health can influence pain perception and pain outcomes. Therefore, it is vital to adopt a holistic approach to pain management that addresses both the physical and psychological aspects of an individual’s health.
What Do Our Diets Have To Do With Pain?
What we eat can impact how we experience and manage pain. Certain foods and nutrients can either cause or reduce inflammation, which can influence chronic pain conditions. While the relationship between diet and pain is complex and individualized, maintaining a healthy, well-balanced diet may contribute to better pain management outcomes. Diet can affect pain in the following ways:
Inflammation: Chronic inflammation can not only make you more sensitive to pain but also worsen certain pain conditions. Some foods, such as processed meats, sugary snacks, refined grains, and certain vegetable oils, can promote inflammation in the body. On the other hand, a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fatty fish (high in omega-3 fatty acids), nuts, and seeds can provide anti-inflammatory benefits. 
Body Weight: Maintaining a healthy body weight is important for pain management, as excess weight can strain joints and increase pain. A balanced diet combined with regular exercise can help alleviate pain associated with conditions such as osteoarthritis or chronic low back pain. 
Nutrient Deficiencies: Certain nutrient deficiencies can contribute to pain or affect the body’s ability to manage pain. For example, low levels of vitamin D, magnesium, and B vitamins have been linked to increased pain sensitivity. Consuming a varied diet that meets nutrient needs can help support optimal pain management. 
Gut Health: Emerging research suggests that the gut microbiome may play a role in pain modulation. A healthy gut microbiome, promoted by a diet rich in fiber, fermented foods, and prebiotics, may have a positive impact on pain perception. 
Keep in mind that individual responses to specific foods can vary, and dietary changes should be personalized based on individual needs and any underlying health conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian can provide tailored dietary recommendations for pain management.
Sleep And Stress: The Vicious Cycle Of Pain Amplifiers
Chronic pain conditions are often associated with sleep disturbances. Pain can disrupt the sleep architecture, resulting in decreased time spend sleeping and increased wakefulness during the night.  Sleep deprivation or poor sleep quality can increase pain sensitivity, amplifying pain signaling in the nervous system. This heightened pain sensitivity can intensify pain and contribute to the continuance of chronic pain conditions. This can result in a vicious cycle where pain disrupts sleep, and poor sleep exacerbates pain. 
Similar to sleep deprivation, stress can also lower our tolerance for pain and make us more sensitive to it. Chronic pain can also contribute to stress and impact an individual’s ability to manage stress effectively. When we’re stressed, our bodies trigger the release of stress hormones, such as cortisol. These hormones can make pain receptors more sensitive and amplify pain signals. Additionally, chronic stress can contribute to systemic inflammation, which can worsen pain conditions. The inflammation caused by stress can enhance pain signaling and prolong the inflammatory response, making pain symptoms worse.  High levels of stress may lead to unhelpful coping strategies such as avoidance, catastrophizing, or increased reliance on pain medications; these ineffective methods can perpetuate the cycle of pain and stress. 
It is important to address both sleep and stress as components of pain management. Interventions targeting sleep, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), may have beneficial effects on pain.  Likewise stress management is a vital first step to get chronic pain under control.
Natural Techniques for Pain Management
There are several effective techniques that can help individuals alleviate or manage pain. It’s important to consider the type and severity of pain, as well as individual preferences when choosing a technique. Here are some commonly used approaches for pain relief:
Take it easy – use the 50% method: When you’re having a good day, estimate how much you can do in the whole day then do only half of that estimate. This will help you feel productive without burning out which is when pain tends to flare up.
Develop a pain flare plan: Create a list of items or actions that have helped to reduce your pain levels in the past and keep it close by so you or a loved one can refer to it when needed.
Heat or cold therapy: Applying heat or cold to the affected area may help reduce pain and inflammation. Try using a heating pad or ice pack for 15-20 minutes at a time, several times a day. Some studies suggest that heat therapy can be effective for acute low back pain while cold therapy can help with swelling in musculoskeletal injuries. 
Get moving: Set a timer to get up and move or stretch every 20-30 minutes in order to reduce tension and ease discomfort. Consider physical therapy which involves exercises, stretches, and other physical interventions to enhance mobility, strength, and flexibility, which can help alleviate pain. 
Tune into your body: Avoid sitting, standing, or working in unbalanced postures, such as crossing your legs while you sit or shifting your weight to one foot as you stand.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT focuses on the relationship between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, aiming to modify negative thoughts and develop coping strategies for pain management. It can involve relaxation techniques, guided imagery, progressive muscle relaxation, deep breathing, and mindfulness-based interventions. 
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): CAM approaches, such as acupuncture, massage therapy, chiropractic care, herbal remedies, and yoga, are sometimes used as adjuncts to conventional pain management. These techniques may help promote relaxation, reduce muscle tension, improve circulation, and provide temporary pain relief. 
Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day — staying hydrated has been shown to improve muscle and joint health. Proper hydration helps maintain the functions of the body systems involved in pain perception and management. 
Heal through music: Harness the therapeutic benefits of music by dancing or simply listening to music to support physical and emotional wellbeing. 
For more tips and tricks be sure to check out our Pain Primer!
Stretch It Out: Exercises And Stretches To Alleviate Pain
Exercise and stretching can be beneficial for relieving pain and promoting flexibility, strength, and overall well-being. Here are some commonly recommended exercises and stretches for pain relief:
Low-Impact Aerobic Exercises: Activities such as walking, swimming, cycling, and water aerobics are generally well-tolerated and can help improve cardiovascular health, promote circulation, and reduce pain. Start with low-impact exercises and gradually increase intensity as tolerated. 
Strength Training: Strengthening exercises targeting specific muscle groups can help support and stabilize the joints, reduce pain, and improve overall function. Exercises involving resistance bands, bodyweight exercises, or weightlifting can be beneficial. It’s important to use proper form and start with light weights or low resistance. 
Stretching: Gentle stretching exercises can help improve flexibility, reduce muscle tension, and alleviate pain. Focus on stretching major muscle groups, such as the neck, shoulders, back, hips, and legs. Incorporate both static stretching (holding a stretch for a period of time) and dynamic stretching (gentle, controlled movements) into your routine. 
Yoga and Pilates: Mind-body practices such as Yoga and Pilates combine stretching, strengthening, and relaxation techniques, and can improve flexibility, core strength, and posture, and reduce pain. Attend classes led by certified instructors or follow reputable online resources. 
Tai Chi: This ancient Chinese martial art involves slow, flowing movements and deep breathing. Tai Chi can enhance balance, flexibility, strength, and mental focus, potentially reducing pain and promoting relaxation. Seek guidance from a qualified instructor to learn proper techniques. 
It’s important to consult with a healthcare professional or a qualified exercise specialist before starting any new exercise or stretching routine, particularly if you have specific medical conditions or chronic pain. They can provide personalized recommendations based on your individual needs
In summary, pain is a complex process that is deeply connected to many important aspects of our lives such as mental health, stress, and sleep. Nutrition and exercise also play a huge role in pain management. There are various techniques for managing pain, ranging from more natural methods to alleviate pain to interventions that require guidance from a healthcare professional. Ultimately pain is an enigmatic sensation that guides and protects us and is an extraordinary marvel of our human physiology.
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